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Le difficile ancrage de la démocratie en Turquie

Geneva Hub for Democracy Policy Paper


Özcan Yilmaz

Release Date:

March 2017

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Ottoman and Kemalist reforms of modernisation are at the basis of democracy in Turkey. After World War II, Turkey aligned on  democracy and the Kemalist elite accepted the creation of political parties as well as the organisation of free elections. However, Turkish democracy remains under the control of the army which can decide, whenever it deems necessary – in the event when the civil government is « unable to lead the country » –  to act as a substitute to the government leading the country.  In 2002, AKP (the Justice and Development Party) came to power with the intention to end the influence of the army and institute a real democracy. Nevertheless, after reforms and facing different internal and external challenges, AKP became an authoritarian and repressive regime that weakened the rule of law and the democratic system.